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Ebola, SARS, H7N9: Epidemien auf dem Vormarsch? | ARTE Future


Ebola, SARS, H7N9: Epidemien auf dem Vormarsch? | ARTE Future.

Ebola, SARS, H7N9: Epidemien auf dem Vormarsch?

Aktualisiert am: 09 September 2014

Heute tauchen so viele neue Viren auf wie nie zuvor. Seit März 2014 sorgen die Berichte über das Fortschreiten des Ebola-Virus in Westafrika weltweit für ernste Debatten in der Gesundheitspolitik. Wie kann sich die Menschheit vor Bedrohungen wie diesen zukünftig besser schützen?

Ansteckungsgefahr! Epidemien auf dem Vormarsch

SARS, Ebola, H7N9 – kein Jahr vergeht, ohne dass tödliche Epidemien die Schlagzeilen erobern. Wissenschaftler suchen nach Impfstoffen, versuchen herauszufinden, warum Viren mutieren und wie sie in einer immer globalisierteren Welt bekämpft werden können. Ein Wettlauf gegen die Zeit.

Dokumentation von Anne Poiret et Raphaël Hitier (Frankreich, 2014) – Dienstag, 09. September um 20:15 Uhr (83 Min.)

  • épidémie
  • Virus

28 Minuten

  • Extrait 28 minutes - Sujet Ebola + débat

    Extrait 28 minutes – Sujet Ebola + débat

    Freitag, 5. September um 10:10 Uhr (27 min)

    Producer:
    ARTE G.E.I.E.
    Show Preroll:
    Show Postroll:
    Start Timecode:
    0

Ebola: Sind alle krank vor Angst? Über diese Frage diskutieren Sylvie Brunel, Geografin und Professorin an der Universität Paris-Sorbonne, Claire Magone, Beauftragte von “Ärzte ohne Grenzen” in Sierra Leone, und Professor Jean-François Delfraissy, Direktor des Instituts für Mikrobiologie und Infektionskrankheiten des INSERM.

Magazin (Frankreich, 2014) – Ausschnitt

  • Ebola
  • 28 Minuten

Ebola in Westafrika

Während Ebola sich in den Ländern Westafrikas weiter ausbreitet, sucht die Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) immer noch nach Möglichkeiten, die Krankheit einzudämmen – bisher haben sich schon über tausend Menschen infiziert, viele sind an der Virusinfektion gestorben.

Nun wird auf die Wirksamkeit eines neuen Medikaments gehofft, das allerdings noch nicht offiziell zugelassen ist.

  • Ebola
  • Westafrika

Wann ist ein Virus gefährlich?

  • Epidémies, la menace invisible

    Bewertung der Gefährlichkeit eines Virus

    Dienstag, 19. August um 20:16 Uhr (1 min)

    Producer:
    ARTE G.E.I.E.

Das Wissen über Viren ist für die Einschätzung des Gefahrenpotentials unerlässlich.

  • Virus

Übertragung von Viren auf den Menschen

  • Epidémies, la menace invisible

    Übertragung von Viren auf den Menschen

    Dienstag, 19. August um 20:16 Uhr (1 min)

    Producer:
    ARTE G.E.I.E.

Für den Menschen tödliche Viren kommen aus der Tierwelt. Doch wie werden sie übertragen?

  • Virus

Viren – was verbirgt sich hinter ihren Bezeichnungen?

  • Epidémies, la menace invisible

    Die Bezeichnung von Viren

    Dienstag, 19. August um 20:16 Uhr (1 min)

    Producer:
    ARTE G.E.I.E.

H1N1, H5N9… was verbirgt sich hinter den oft komplizierten Namen neuer Viren?

  • Virus

Wie mutieren Viren?

  • Epidémies, la menace invisible

    Mutation von Viren

    Dienstag, 19. August um 20:16 Uhr (1 min)

    Producer:
    ARTE G.E.I.E.

Um eine neue Art infizieren zu können, muss ein Virus sich zunächst seinem Wirt anpassen. Wie funktioniert das?

  • Virus
  • Mutation

Fledermäuse – Zwischenträger zahlreicher Krankheitserreger

Fledermäuse sind Zwischenträger für zahlreiche Krankheiten, die sowohl beim Menschen als auch bei anderen Tierarten ausbrechen könnten.

Eine von Wissenschaftlern am französischen Forschungsinstitut IRD (1) in einem internationalen Team durchgeführte und in der Zeitschrift Nature Communications veröffentlichte Studie belegt die von ihnen ausgehende weltweite Bedrohung. Die Forscher fanden heraus, dass Fledertiere unter anderem Paramyxoviren verbreiten, zu denen die Erreger von Masern, Mumps und zahlreichen Atemwegserkrankungen zählen, die Hauptursache für eine hohe Kindersterblichkeit sind. Die kleinen Flugsäuger sollen demnach diese Erreger an das gesamte Tierreich weitergegeben haben.

Die Forscher haben insgesamt 60 neue Arten des Paramyxovirus entdeckt. Bei den Fledermäusen traten zudem hauptsächlich solche Formen auf, die jenen Paramyxoviren sehr ähnlich sind, die bisher als auf den Menschen beschränkt galten. Die Entdeckung eines solchen Virenreservoirs versetzt den Hoffnungen auf eine Ausrottung bestimmter Krankheiten, etwa von Masern, einen schweren Schlag. Andere Viren, zum Beispiel die in Asien und Australien stark verbreiteten Hendra- und Nipah-Viren, befinden sich nun auch in Afrika in der Inkubationszeit. Sämtliche Fledertierbestände müssen ab sofort unter strenge Beobachtung gestellt werden.

Egal ob Masern, Mumps, Lungenentzündung, Grippe oder Hirnentzündungen beim Menschen, ob Hundestaupe oder Rinderpest: Für all diese Infektionen sind Viren ein- und derselben Familie, die Parmyxoviridae, verantwortlich. Eine breit angelegte internationale Studie1, an der Forscher des IRD und mehrerer deutscher Universitäten beteiligt waren, und deren Ergebnisse in der Zeitschrift Nature Communications nachzulesen sind, führte zur Entdeckung von über 60 neuen Arten dieser gefährlichen Viren, wodurch sich die Zahl der bekannten Varianten fast verdreifachte. Die Familie von Krankheitserregern ist sehr vielfältig und befällt alle Tierarten, vom Hund über Rinder und Menschen bis zu Vögeln, was die Suche nach dem Ursprungswirt erschwert. In einer weltweiten Untersuchung ist es den Forschern nun gelungen, die Fledermaus als Verteiler zu entlarven.

 

Sämtliche Anzeichen weisen auf die Fledermaus hin

Die Virologen haben über 10.000 Tierproben untersucht, darunter beinahe 90 Fledertierartenaus Afrika, Lateinamerika, Asien und Europa. In Blut- und Organuntersuchungen wurde eine große genetische Vielfalt der Paramyxoviren bei diesen Kleinsäugern festgestellt, was darauf hindeutet, dass sie schon sehr lange bei diesem Wirt auftreten. Außerdem haben die Forscher die Viren bei allen bekannten Fledertierarten nachweisen können. Dieses weltweite Auftreten lässt auf eine Verbreitung über die Kontinente ausgehend von einem gemeinsamen Vorfahren schließen, und darauf, dass die Fledertiere schon seit Jahrtausenden Paramyxoviren in sich tragen. Den Biologen ist es gelungen, in Fledermausorganen fast alle Arten des Paramyxovirus nachzuweisen, was bei keinem anderen Tier der Fall ist. Eine solche virale Verbreitung bestätigt, dass die Infektion des gesamten Tierreichs von den Kleinsäugern ausgeht. Wissenschaftler testeten durch eine Wahrscheinlichkeitsprüfung für jede Art Fledertiere, Nager, Vögel, Menschen, Hunde und Rinder als Kontaminationsquelle. Die Stammesentwicklung der Paramyxoviren lässt auf eine hohe Wahrscheinlichkeit der Übertragung von den Fledermäusen auf die anderen Arten schließen.

 

Die Gefahr ist nicht gebannt

Die Forscher machten eine weitere beunruhigende Entdeckung: Die Fledermäuse könnten noch heute bestimmte Paramyxoviren bewirten, von denen man bisher annahm, dass sie nur den Menschen befielen. Bei Fledermäusen wurden Varianten nachgewiesen, die den für Menschen gefährlichen Erregern sehr ähnlich sind. Dadurch könnten Kinderkrankheiten wie Masern und Mumps, welche die WHO zumindest in den Industrieländern für beinahe ausgerottet hielt, wieder auftreten. Eine Ausrottung ist nur möglich, wenn jede tierische Infektionsquelle ausgeschlossen werden kann3.

 

Ganze Kontinente in Alarmbereitschaft

Ein weiteres alarmierendes Ergebnis der Studie ist der Nachweis von außerordentlich gefährlichen Viren in Gebieten, in denen man sie nicht vermutete. Ein Beispiel sind die Hendra- und Nipah-Viren, die vor Kurzem zur epidemischen Verbreitung tödlicher Encephalitisbeim Menschen in Asien und Australien geführt haben, von denen andere Regionen bisher nicht betroffen waren. Die Wissenschaftler haben die Erreger in Organen afrikanischer Fledermäuse nachgewiesen. Untersuchungen in Gabun und Ghana zeigten eine hohe Präsenz beider Erreger, was einen Ausbruch auf dem afrikanischen Kontinent befürchten lässt. Bisher waren Fledermäuse bereits als Überträger von Ebola und Tollwut bekannt, die zwar stark epidemisch, aber relativ selten und nur in räumlich begrenzten Gebieten auftreten. Jetzt stellen sie sich als mögliche Wirte für zahlreiche Erregerviren für Menschen- und Tierkrankheiten auf der ganzen Welt heraus. Bei jeder epidemiologischen Untersuchung von Paramyxoviren müssen von nun an die ökologischen Daten der Fledermausbevölkerung berücksichtigt werden.

Mit freundlicher Genehmigung des IRD

(Institut de Recherche pour le Développement)

(1) Die Arbeiten wurden in Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Universitäten in Bonn, Hannover, Marburg, Köln und Ulm, dem Noctalis-Zentrum, dem Bernhard-Nocht-Institut für Tropenmedizin, der Charité-Universitätsmedizin und dem Institut für neue und neuartige Tierseuchenerreger (alle Deutschland), dem CIRMF (Gabun), der Wissenschaftsakademie der Tschechischen Republik, dem Nationalpark Stranja (Bulgarien), der Universität Kumasi (Ghana), der Universität Lubumbashi (Demokratische Republik Kongo), der Universität Bahia (Brasilien), der Universität Stellenbosch (Südafrika), dem Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides (Russland), dem Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama), dem KCCR (Ghana), dem Institut Pasteur in Bangui (Zentralafrikanische Republik), dem Netherlands Center for Infectious Disease Control, dem Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle und dem CNRS (beide Frankreich) durchgeführt.

(2) Die Fledermäuse gehören zur Ordnung der Fledertiere (Chiroptera).

(3) Die WHO hat 2012 ein neues Programm zur Ausrottung von Masern in mindestens fünf der sechs WHO-Regionen bis 2020 vorgestellt.

(4) Hirnentzündungen (Encephalitis)

  • Virus
  • Fledermaus

Helfer in Gefahr

Das “Center for Innovation in Global Health” der US-amerikanischen Universität Stanford arbeitet eng mit Medizinern weltweit zusammen, um u.a. Epidemien wie Ebola einzugrenzen. Die Institutsleiterin Michele Barry spricht im Interview mit der Online-Plattform Medium über die Gefahren in der westafrikanischen Gesundheitsversorgung – und warum sie vorerst keine Kollegen mehr nach Liberia schicken will.

  • Ebola
  • Ärzte
  • Liberia

 

Featured

How Blue Eyes Originated!


 

Close-up of a blue-eyed koala
Close-up of a blue-eyed koala (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

https://youtu.be/zPN6AGdGV0g

How Blue eyes Originated

Everyone with blue eyes alive today – from Angelina Jolie to Wayne Rooney – can trace their ancestry back to one person who probably lived about 10,000 years ago in the Black Sea region, a study has found. Scientists studying the genetics of eye colour have discovered that more than 99.5 per cent of blue-eyed people who volunteered to have their DNA analysed have the same tiny mutation in the gene that determines the colour of the Iris.

This indicates that the mutation originated in just one person who became the ancestor of all subsequent people in the world with blue eyes, according to a study by Professor Hans Eiberg and colleagues at the University of Copenhagen.

The scientists are not sure when the mutation occurred but other evidence suggested it probably arose about 10,000 years ago when there was a rapid expansion of the human population in Europe as a result of the spread of agriculture from the Middle East.

“The mutations responsible for blue eye colour most likely originate from the north-west part of the Black Sea region, where the great agricultural migration of the northern part of Europe took place in the Neolithic periods about 6,000 to 10,000 years ago,” the researchers report in the journal Human Genetics.

Professor Eiberg said that brown is the “default” colour for human eyes which results from a build-up of the dark skin pigment, melanin. However, in northern Europe a mutation arose in a gene known as OCA2 that disrupted melanin production in the iris and caused the eye colour to become blue.

“Originally, we all had brown eyes,” said Professor Eiberg. “But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a ‘switch’ which literally turned off the ability to produce brown eyes.”

Variations in the colour of people’s eyes can be explained by the amount of melanin in the iris, but blue-eyed individuals only have a small degree of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes, he said.

“From this we can conclude that all blue-eyed individuals are linked to the same ancestor. They have all inherited the same switch at exactly the same spot in their DNA,” said Professor Eiberg.

Men and women with blue eyes have almost exactly the same genetic sequence in the part of the DNA responsible for eye colour. However, brown-eyed people, by contrast, have a considerable amount of individual variation in that area of DNA.

Professor Eiberg said he has analysed the DNA of about 800 people with blue eyes, ranging from fair-skinned, blond-haired Scandinavians to dark-skinned, blue-eyed people living in Turkey and Jordan.

“All of them, apart from possibly one exception, had exactly the same DNA sequence in the region of the OCA2 gene. This to me indicates very strongly that there must have been a single, common ancestor of all these people,” he said.

It is not known why blue eyes spread among the population of northern Europe and southern Russia. Explanations include the suggestions that the blue eye colour either offered some advantage in the long hours of daylight in the summer, or short hours of daylight in winter, or that the trait was deemed attractive and therefore advantageous in terms of sexual selection.

Source The Independent

 

Featured

Mortality Increase From Alzheimer´s Disease in U.S. within last 10 Years


Talesfromthelou’s Blog – copied:

Mortality Increase From Alzheimer’s Disease in the United States within the last 10 Years. Data for 2000 and 2010

Fascinating data from the Center for Disease Control.  A generation ago we could not even spell Alzheimer’s. It now looks like we are facing an avalanche of seniors losing their minds, and their lives, in later years.  You better believe that I will be looking for all preventative methods and cures for this dreaded degeneration of the brain.  I have seen what it does and it has no dignity. Lou

Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States

NCHS Data Briefs Update.

In 2010, Alzheimer’s disease was the underlying cause for a total of 83,494 deaths and was classified as a contributing cause for an additional 26,488 deaths. Mortality from Alzheimer’s disease has steadily increased during the last 30 years. Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the fifth leading cause for people aged 65 years and over. An estimated 5.4 million persons in the United States have Alzheimer’s disease. The cost of health care for people with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia was estimated to be 200 billion dollars in 2012, including 140 billion dollars in costs to Medicare and Medicaid and is expected to reach 1.1 trillion dollars in 2050.

Alzheimer’s disease mortality varies by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and geographic area. This report presents mortality data on Alzheimer’s disease based on data from the National Vital Statistics System from 2000 through 2010, the most recent year for which detailed data are available.

Key findings

Data from the National Vital Statistics System

  • The age-adjusted death rate from Alzheimer’s disease increased by 39 percent from 2000 through 2010 in the United States.
  • Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and is the fifth leading cause among people aged 65 years and over. People aged 85 years and over have a 5.4 times greater risk of dying from Alzheimer’s disease than people aged 75–84 years.
  • The risk of dying from Alzheimer’s disease is 26 percent higher among the non-Hispanic white population than among the non-Hispanic black population, whereas the Hispanic population has a 30 percent lower risk than the non-Hispanic white population.
  • In 2010, among all states and the District of Columbia, 31 states showed death rates from Alzheimer’s disease that were above the national rate (25.1).

Keywords: dementia, National Vital Statistics System, death rate, aging

Alzheimer’s disease mortality increased compared with selected major causes of death.

Figure 1 is a bar chart showing percent change in age-adjusted death rates for the selected causes of death between 2000 and 2010.

Full article:

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db116.htm

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Dr. Medicine Slavica Mazak Bešlić – A Dear Animal Campaigner Friend Lost Today. — World Animals Voice


spiritandanimaldotcom.wordpress.com

Today, 17/7/20 I have been sent a very sad message from friends and welfare people, Branka and Pavel, who operate ARKA in Serbia.  The message reads:   Dear Mark, We are so sorry to inform you that Slavica (EPAR) died Yesterday morning at 3h30’. Recently, apart of her main illness, she fell and […]

Dr. Medicine Slavica Mazak Bešlić – A Dear Animal Campaigner Friend Lost Today. — World Animals Voice

View original post

#MAJOR update of Animal Use Statistics!


Speaking of Research

August 16th 2021

Position Statement
The collection of statistical data on animal use are undoubtedly useful for some purposes but they also have major limitations with respect to informing meaningful and serious consideration of the ethical use of animals in research. As we’ve writtenbefore, simply reporting the numbers ignores the global context and relevant information about fluctuations in animals used in research over time. As a result, the reporting can often fall short of the overall goal. Thus, we advocate for an open, serious, and global consideration of the methods, use, and reporting on the number of animals in research and testing worldwide. For instance, we urge the research, advocacy, regulatory, policy and media communities to consider: What is the public benefit and goal of this particular type of reporting? Does the method of collecting data and reporting on animal numbers provide a full picture of why…

View original post 288 more words

Beyond Meat Launches Online Store To Make Plant-Based Meat More Accessible In China. Great, But What About Wet Markets Still Operating in Their Hundreds ?


ENVIRONMENTALFARM ANIMALSGENERAL NEWS

Beyond Meat Launches Online Store To Make Plant-Based Meat More Accessible In China. Great, But What About Wet Markets Still Operating in Their Hundreds ?

CLICK FOR ORIGINALBLOG

WAV Comment – This is great news for the animals who will be spared death by the meat industry. But what about the wet markets that are still operating ? – read more at SINGAPORE TO BAN THE SALE AND SLAUGHTER OF TURTLES AND FROGS IN WET MARKETS. News From Animal Equality – Breaking 20/7/21 – World Animals Voice regarding Singapore. China dumped Corona on the world, killing hundreds of thousands; and still the world sits idly by annd lets it continue to operate wet markets !

Beyond meat is great, but what about ‘Beyond Wet Markets’ – the world really needs to get a grip on this or the virus spread situation will never stop all the time we see what is going on. Watch the video below – look at the state of these places and the general conditions; the state of the water; the blood running onto the street, people working with dead animals on the pavement; and no protective clothing rules or at all. Is it any wonder that viruses originate from shit holes like this ?

Am I the only one who sees a problem ? – an I the only one who feels that international governments are doing very little to address the real problem ? – am I the only one who sees gutless politicians spending billions to keep the economy afloat, whist turning blind eyes to this ? – I am ‘Beyond Angry’, not beyond meat !!.

Regards Markhttps://www.youtube.com/embed/WxtZj1_zW20?

version=3&rel=1&showsearch=0&showinfo=1&iv_load_policy=1&fs=1&hl=en&autohide=2&wmode=transparent

Video from Animal Equality – see the link above to read more.

Life Near Fracking Wells = More Birth Defects, Childhood Asthma, Childhood Leukaemia — One American Community’s Struggle


CHILDREN IN SHADOW - CHILREN IN PRISON - CHILDREN IN WAR

Life Near Fracking Wells = More Birth Defects, Childhood Asthma, Childhood Leukaemia — One American Community’s Struggle

TOPICS:BN FrankCancerChild HealthFrackingPollution

JUNE 15, 2021

ByB.N. Frank

Earlier this year, another study confirmed that children living near fracking wells aremore vulnerable to health issues.Of course, it’s not only children who are vulnerable. What’s happening in one American community serves as a warning to us all.

FromMother Jones:


When the Frackers Get Too Close for Comfort

America bet big on shale fuels. Now towns like Arlington, Texas, are stuck with the consequences.

This story was produced by Reveal from The Center for Investigative Reporting. (You can sign up for Reveal’s newsletter atrevealnews.org/newsletter.)

When Wanda Vincent looks out the windows of her daycare center in Arlington, Texas, past the playground, she sees a row of enormous beige storage tanks. They’re connected to two…

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FIRST I SAW A HORROR – LATER I GOT AN INFORMATION: THIS VIDEO SHEW ANOTHER SUJET – NOT A CRUELTY ON A KITTEN!


spiritandanimaldotcom.wordpress.com


Dr. A. Grabowski M.A.@StopIllatosutReplying to @StopIllatosut

激おこ子猫をきなこ風呂に入れて仲良くなりたい。#19きなこ料理も仕上げになってきました。*米ぬか風呂とブラッシングは獣医の指示のもと行なっておりますです。救出動画https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pD3jWjkOhCM動物シリーズ

2:21 PM · Jun 15, 2021·Twitter Web App

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‘It’s going to happen again’: Fears wet markets could lead to another deadly disease


Nigeria:  Undercover investigation by UK television shows that wet markets operate as normal; and that this is another Covid pandemic waiting to happen. Disturbing footage, as are all wet markets that involve live animals.

https://www.itv.com/news/2021-03-16/its-going-to-happen-again-fears-wet-markets-could-lead-to-another-deadly-disease

THANK YOU, VENUS AND SERBIAN ANIMAL FRIENDS FOR SHARING THIS IMPORTANT PIECE!

ITV News (UK) has secretly filmed in Oluwo Fish Market, a wet market just outside Lagos, Nigeria’s largest city.

‘It’s going to happen again’: Fears wet markets could lead to another deadly disease

  • Video report by ITV News Correspondent Lucy Watson

Inside the market, ITV News

Oluwo Fish Market teems with life. It is a wet market just outside Lagos, Nigeria’s largest city.

ITV News secretly filmed there – a place awash with animals – alive and dead. Scientists believe wet markets are a breeding ground for disease, a high risk environment, from where the next pandemic could emerge.

The very concept of a “wet market” means the presence of blood and bodily fluids.

It is a marketplace selling fresh meat and fish, as opposed to a “dry market” that sells durable products.

Not all wet markets sell live animals. Not all of them trade in wild and exotic animals, but some do, and some of those have been linked to outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, where an infection crosses the species barrier from animal to human. Exhibit A. Covid-19. The pandemic that allegedly originated at the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China.

Video obtained by both ITV News and the charity WildAtLife shows live crocodiles having their scales removed, pangolins being kicked and abused and dogs boiled alive.

Chinedu Mogbu has rescued many animals from the wet market, ITV News.
Chinedu Mogbu has rescued many animals from the wet market.Credit: ITV News

Multiple primates were seen imprisoned in cages, the heads of others were for sale. It was difficult to watch when a baby baboon, trapped inside a birdcage, reached out to the camera grasping for freedom, as a decapitated monkey was sold next to him.

One woman reached into a brown sack and pulled out a pangolin. This species is the most trafficked animal in the world. We could buy it there for less than ten pounds.

The pangolin is a species that has been linked to the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Their scales are of high value in Asia for medicines.



The abuse of animals and the health risks for humans at this market were plain to see. It’s what the conservation group WildAtLife want to expose. Chinedu Mogbu works for them, and has rescued umpteen exotic species from there in recent months.

He said: “Nigeria doesn’t have strong laws to protect its wildlife.

Wet market animal cages
There are fears another zoonotic illness could develop at a wet market.Credit: ITV News

“Anyone can go into the forest, take a pangolin and sell it on the street. The law enforcers are not even aware of the importance or the laws that protect these animals.”

We did notice the presence of Asian buyers at this African market.

Any illicit, international trade would undoubtedly increase the risk of spreading disease around the globe, but Nigerian officials say they are doing enough to prevent that.

Joseph Attah from the Customs Service refused to answer more than one question on the matter though.

This was all he would say: “We have been making a lot of seizures about that, we have been seizing them and we will continue to seize them anytime we see them.”

We know, that despite our allegations, the wet market in Epe continues to thrive. Scientists are concerned that such places pose an unnecessary and high risk.

“Every single animal at a wet market is likely to have an infection,” Malcolm Bennett from the University of Nottingham told me. He is Professor of Zoonotic and Emerging Diseases.

“That general concept of bringing lots of animals and people together, and doing lots of things to them in the same place is a high risk thing to do. It’s not just a biodiversity of animals, it’s a biodiversity of disease. Some of which will spread to us.“

He said unflinchingly, “It is going to happen again.”

There is a high security lab at the university where they are analysing the affects of COVID-19 on cells.

Bringing together animals and people that don’t usually mix increases the risk of new infections, so wet markets are ideal places for cross species transmission and disease amplification.

Other viruses we know of that started out as zoonotic diseases are SARS, MERS, Ebola, even HIV.

Stopping the development of such viruses is impossible, instead we need to mitigate the risks.

In many peoples’ eyes what happens at some wet markets is unhygienic, tortuous and brutal, but in African and Asian nations it isn’t simply a case of shutting them down. There are more issues at play. They have a critical role in social interaction and for different cultures. The Deputy Director of the National Zoo, Aminu Muhammad Beli, explained.

“We cannot close the wet markets because there are certain animals that have cultural attributes to certain tribal groups. We have to devise a way of sustaining the industry,” he said.

His words are perhaps difficult to stomach when you see carcasses lying in the hot sun and live animals being butchered. Regulation and surveillance must increase though, else harmful pathogens will breed.

We just can’t predict where or how destructive they will be.

Regards Mark

Comment – I watched the investigation on UK news yesterday (16/3) – and was informed that some of the UK team rescued some of the animals and released them back into the wild where they belong. Well done ITN.