We Are Making Ebola Outbreaks Worse By Cutting Down Forests


We Are Making Ebola Outbreaks Worse By Cutting Down Forests

Mother Jones

We Are Making Ebola Outbreaks Worse By Cutting Down Forests

Epidemiologists explain how human activity helps spread the deadly virus in West Africa.

HumanSinShadow.wordpress.com

Mother Jones

We Are Making Ebola Outbreaks Worse By Cutting Down Forests

Epidemiologists explain how human activity helps spread the deadly virus in West Africa.

View original post 1,573 more words

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How Blue Eyes Originated!


 

Close-up of a blue-eyed koala

Close-up of a blue-eyed koala (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

https://youtu.be/zPN6AGdGV0g

How Blue eyes Originated

Everyone with blue eyes alive today – from Angelina Jolie to Wayne Rooney – can trace their ancestry back to one person who probably lived about 10,000 years ago in the Black Sea region, a study has found. Scientists studying the genetics of eye colour have discovered that more than 99.5 per cent of blue-eyed people who volunteered to have their DNA analysed have the same tiny mutation in the gene that determines the colour of the Iris.

This indicates that the mutation originated in just one person who became the ancestor of all subsequent people in the world with blue eyes, according to a study by Professor Hans Eiberg and colleagues at the University of Copenhagen.

The scientists are not sure when the mutation occurred but other evidence suggested it probably arose about 10,000 years ago when there was a rapid expansion of the human population in Europe as a result of the spread of agriculture from the Middle East.

“The mutations responsible for blue eye colour most likely originate from the north-west part of the Black Sea region, where the great agricultural migration of the northern part of Europe took place in the Neolithic periods about 6,000 to 10,000 years ago,” the researchers report in the journal Human Genetics.

Professor Eiberg said that brown is the “default” colour for human eyes which results from a build-up of the dark skin pigment, melanin. However, in northern Europe a mutation arose in a gene known as OCA2 that disrupted melanin production in the iris and caused the eye colour to become blue.

“Originally, we all had brown eyes,” said Professor Eiberg. “But a genetic mutation affecting the OCA2 gene in our chromosomes resulted in the creation of a ‘switch’ which literally turned off the ability to produce brown eyes.”

Variations in the colour of people’s eyes can be explained by the amount of melanin in the iris, but blue-eyed individuals only have a small degree of variation in the amount of melanin in their eyes, he said.

“From this we can conclude that all blue-eyed individuals are linked to the same ancestor. They have all inherited the same switch at exactly the same spot in their DNA,” said Professor Eiberg.

Men and women with blue eyes have almost exactly the same genetic sequence in the part of the DNA responsible for eye colour. However, brown-eyed people, by contrast, have a considerable amount of individual variation in that area of DNA.

Professor Eiberg said he has analysed the DNA of about 800 people with blue eyes, ranging from fair-skinned, blond-haired Scandinavians to dark-skinned, blue-eyed people living in Turkey and Jordan.

“All of them, apart from possibly one exception, had exactly the same DNA sequence in the region of the OCA2 gene. This to me indicates very strongly that there must have been a single, common ancestor of all these people,” he said.

It is not known why blue eyes spread among the population of northern Europe and southern Russia. Explanations include the suggestions that the blue eye colour either offered some advantage in the long hours of daylight in the summer, or short hours of daylight in winter, or that the trait was deemed attractive and therefore advantageous in terms of sexual selection.

Source The Independent

 

Mortality Increase From Alzheimer´s Disease in U.S. within last 10 Years


Talesfromthelou’s Blog – copied:

Mortality Increase From Alzheimer’s Disease in the United States within the last 10 Years. Data for 2000 and 2010

Fascinating data from the Center for Disease Control.  A generation ago we could not even spell Alzheimer’s. It now looks like we are facing an avalanche of seniors losing their minds, and their lives, in later years.  You better believe that I will be looking for all preventative methods and cures for this dreaded degeneration of the brain.  I have seen what it does and it has no dignity. Lou

Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States

NCHS Data Briefs Update.

In 2010, Alzheimer’s disease was the underlying cause for a total of 83,494 deaths and was classified as a contributing cause for an additional 26,488 deaths. Mortality from Alzheimer’s disease has steadily increased during the last 30 years. Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the fifth leading cause for people aged 65 years and over. An estimated 5.4 million persons in the United States have Alzheimer’s disease. The cost of health care for people with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia was estimated to be 200 billion dollars in 2012, including 140 billion dollars in costs to Medicare and Medicaid and is expected to reach 1.1 trillion dollars in 2050.

Alzheimer’s disease mortality varies by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and geographic area. This report presents mortality data on Alzheimer’s disease based on data from the National Vital Statistics System from 2000 through 2010, the most recent year for which detailed data are available.

Key findings

Data from the National Vital Statistics System

  • The age-adjusted death rate from Alzheimer’s disease increased by 39 percent from 2000 through 2010 in the United States.
  • Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and is the fifth leading cause among people aged 65 years and over. People aged 85 years and over have a 5.4 times greater risk of dying from Alzheimer’s disease than people aged 75–84 years.
  • The risk of dying from Alzheimer’s disease is 26 percent higher among the non-Hispanic white population than among the non-Hispanic black population, whereas the Hispanic population has a 30 percent lower risk than the non-Hispanic white population.
  • In 2010, among all states and the District of Columbia, 31 states showed death rates from Alzheimer’s disease that were above the national rate (25.1).

Keywords: dementia, National Vital Statistics System, death rate, aging

Alzheimer’s disease mortality increased compared with selected major causes of death.

Figure 1 is a bar chart showing percent change in age-adjusted death rates for the selected causes of death between 2000 and 2010.

Full article:

http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db116.htm

Related articles

Florida is ready, but where is the hurricane?


Florida is ready, but where is the hurricane?
By Leila MACOR
Port Saint Lucie, United States (AFP) Sept 3, 2019

 

 

 

 

Houses and businesses are boarded up, bridges to barrier islands are blocked and many residents of Florida’s beachside communities are long gone.
But the wait is starting to get to those who have stayed behind, waiting for Hurricane Dorian, the slow-moving behemoth that walloped the Bahamas and now lingers off shore.
“The uncertainty is a little nerve wracking,” says Drew Gabrielson, clutching his trembling Chihuahua Rodney as he looks across a beach at the roughening surf.
The 47-year-old has been through hurricanes before, but this one, he says, is so slow.
“I’m ready for it to be over,” he said.
On Tuesday, Dorian began moving at five miles per hour (eight kilometers per hour), a positively jaunty pace after being stuck at a near standstill for the better part of two days as it battered the helpless Bahamas.
That has given Florida precious time to assemble an army of utility trucks, bulldozers and road-clearing equipment.
But the sense of impatience is growing as the wait stretches out.
One tongue-in-cheek hurricane graphic on social media shows Dorian’s arrival times on the US east coast as anywhere between Halloween and Christmas.
Still, there are chilling reminders that the big storm is still out there.
The hurricane’s outer bands lash the shore from time to time, with 50 miles per hour gusts, intermittent rains and high seas.
– ‘Already working overtime!’ –
On Tuesday morning, Dorian had weakened to a Category 2 storm after leaving at least five dead in the Bahamas, where it landed Sunday as a maximum strength Category 5.
It was expected to continue picking up speed and turn north Wednesday night, which would mark a breakthrough after days in place.
“I think I can walk faster than this storm,” said Erick Gill, communications director for Florida’s St Lucie county.
“Looks like we are out of harm’s way, but we still want to remain vigilant. Until it passes north of us, there’s still a chance that we could be impacted,” he said.
The biggest threat is from storm surges kicked up by Dorian, as well as potential hurricane-force winds.
Early Tuesday, dozens of electric power company workers arrived by bus from Orlando in St Lucie county.
The area is peppered with vulnerable mobile home parks and flood-prone areas, but the extra workers are on hand to repair power lines and clear downed trees once the storm moves through.
“Let the storm take its time, I’m already working overtime!” said one worker, who wouldn’t give his name.
Florida has 118 shelters open across the state, where 10,300 people have taken refuge from the storm.
Mona Buchanan, the principal of a high school being used as a shelter in Fort Pierce, Florida said: “People are tense because we don’t know where the storm is going to go.”

http://spacedaily.com

BATTERED CHILD SYNDROME – SIMILAR SYMPTOMES FOR A BATTERED DOG?


straydogsworldwide.wordpress.com

Diagnosis
Battered child syndrome is most often diagnosed by an emergency room physician or pediatrician, or by teachers or social workers.

Physical examination will detect injuries such as bruises, burns, swelling, retinal hemorrhages (bleeding in the back of the eye), internal damage such as bleeding or rupture of an organ, fractures of long bones ore spiral-type fractures that result from twisting, and fractured ribs or skull. X rays , and other imaging techniques, such as MRI or scans, may confirm or reveal other internal injuries.

The presence of injuries at different stages of healing (i.e., having occurred at different times) is nearly always indicative of BCS.

Establishing the diagnosis is often hindered by the excessive cautiousness of caregivers or by actual concealment of the true origin of the child’s injuries, as a result of fear, shame and avoidance or denial mechanisms

SIMILAR SYMPTOMES FOR A BATTERED DOG  

Animal Abuse…

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Tip for 10/24 Police as Abuse Perpetrators


peaceworkconsultants

This information gathered from The Advocates for Human Rights

Officer-Involved Domestic Violence

Individuals who are the victims of domestic violence at the hands of police officer-batterers are often in a unique and particularly vulnerable situation. Unlike most victims of domestic violence, where the success of protective efforts depends on the cooperation of law enforcement, those subject to abuse from a member of the law enforcement community may, for a variety of reasons, be unable to secure the assistance they seek. And, studies indicate that police families are 2-4 times more likely than the general population to experience domestic violence, making the potential for disparities in protective success particularly troubling. FromPolice Family Violence Fact Sheet, National Center for Women & Policing 

The strong bonds of loyalty within most law enforcement communities, coupled with the discretion granted to officers in determining how to respond to allegations of abuse…

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Tip for 10/18 Recognition of the correlation between animal abuse and domestic violence


peaceworkconsultants

Information copied from the American Humane Society:

Facts About Animal Abuse & Domestic Violence

In association with the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence

Why it Matters

  • 71% of pet-owning women entering women’s shelters reported that their batterer had injured, maimed, killed or threatened family pets for revenge or to psychologically control victims; 32% reported their children had hurt or killed animals.
  • 68% of battered women reported violence towards their animals. 87% of these incidents occurred in the presence of the women, and 75% in the presence of the children, to psychologically control and coerce them.
  • 13% of intentional animal abuse cases involve domestic violence.
  • Between 25% and 40% of battered women are unable to escape abusive situations because they worry about what will happen to their pets or livestock should they leave.
  • Pets may suffer unexplained injuries, health problems, permanent disabilities at the hands of abusers, or disappear from home.

View original post 1,342 more words