Tornado Tracks: 56 Years Of America´s Most Terrifying Tornadoes Visualized


Scooped by Dr. Stefan Gruenwald onto  Amazing Science
From         www.fastcodesign.com                – Today, 6:31 AM
Tornadoes form under a certain set of weather conditions in which three very different types of air come together in a certain way. Near the ground lies a layer of warm and humid air, along with strong south winds. Colder air and strong west or southwest winds lie in the upper atmosphere. Temperature and moisture differences between the surface and the upper levels create what we call instability. A necessary ingredient for tornado formation. The change in wind speed and direction with height is known as wind shear. This wind shear is linked to the eventual development of rotation from which a tornado may form.
A third layer of hot dry air becomes established between the warm moist air at low levels and the cool dry air aloft. This hot layer acts as a cap and allows the warm air underneath to warm further…making the air even more unstable. Things start to happen when a storm system aloft moves east and begins to lift the various layers. Through this lifting process the cap is removed, thereby setting the stage for explosive thunderstorm development as strong updrafts develop. Complex interactions between the updraft and the surrounding winds may cause the updraft to begin rotating-and a tornado is born.
The Great Plains of the Central United States are uniquely suited to bring all of these ingredients together, and so have become known as “Tornado Alley.” The main factors are the Rocky Mountains to the west, the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and a terrain that slopes downward from west to east.
During the spring and summer months southerly winds prevail across the plains. At the origin of those south winds lie the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico, which provide plenty of warm, humid air needed to fuel severe thunderstorm development. Hot dry air forms over the higher elevations to the west, and becomes the cap as it spreads eastward over the moist Gulf air. Where the dry air and the Gulf air meet near the ground, a boundary known as a dry line forms to the west of Oklahoma. A storm system moving out of the southern Rockies may push the dry line eastward, with severe thunderstorms and tornadoes forming along the dry line or in the moist air just ahead of it. What is the Fujita Tornado Damage Scale? Dr. T. Theodore Fujita, a pioneer in the study of tornadoes and severe thunderstorm phenomena, developed the Fujita Tornado Damage Scale (F-Scale) to provide estimates of tornado strength based on damage surveys. Since it is extremely difficult to make direct measurements of tornado winds, an estimate of the winds based on damage is the best way to classify them. The new Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF-Scale) addresses some of the limitations identified by meteorologists and engineers since the introduction of the Fujita Scale in 1971. Variability in the quality of construction and different local building codes made classifying tornadoes in a uniform manner difficult. In many cases, these inconsistencies led to overestimates in the strength of tornadoes. The new scale identifies 28 different free standing structures most affected by tornadoes taking into account construction quality and maintenance. The range of tornado intensities remains as before, zero to five, with ‘EF0’ being the weakest, associated with very little damage and ‘EF5’ representing complete destruction, which was the case in Greensburg, Kansas on May 4th, 2007, the first tornado classified as ‘EF5’. The EF scale was adopted on February 1, 2007.

SOUTHWESTANIMALPROTECTION, UK: EXTREMELY URGENT! 140 DOGS LIVING IN DEPLORABLE CONDITIONS IN ROMANIA….


straydogsworldwide.wordpress.com

please, help, how ever You can! thank You: Annamaria

From: southwestanimalprotection@yahoo.co.uk To:  ; Subject: EXTREMELY URGENT- international appeal for help-140 dogs living in  deplorable conditions in ‘Romania’- they need YOUR help now please! -WORLDWIDE  RESPONSE NEEDED! Date: Mon, 27 May 2013 12:49:15 +0100

PLEASE  FORWARD WIDELY TO ALL YOUR GROUPS/RESCUES AND CONTACTS  NATIONAL  AND INTERNATIONAL AND  ALL YOUR WEBSITES/TWITTER/FACEBOOK/ MYSPACE/BLOGSPOTS FOR MAXIMUM  PUBLICITY!

 

CRISIS FOR DOGS HITS ROMANIAN KENNELS-PLEASE  HELP!EXTREMELY URGENT international appeal for help-140 dogs living in deplorable conditions in  ‘Romania’- they need YOUR help now please!     Please forward this vital life saving appeal  WORLDWIDE!   There are depressed dogs at this kennels in ‘Romania’ some of which are hanging their heads in absolute desperation, some  of these dogs are eating each other as they are starving (video link of this below), there are sick and injured dogs needing veterinary treatment that  need to…

View original post 937 more words

Express.uk: Miracle dog that fell off 500 foot cliff rescued alive thanks to bleating sheep!


                              

Miracle dog that fell off 500 foot cliff rescued alive thanks to bleating sheep

A DOG that fell off a 500 foot and was believed to be dead for two days was miraculously rescued alive and well thanks to a sheep in Dorset.

Published: Thu, May 30, 2013

Lucky-dog-Dobby-with-her-owner-Holly-Chugg-Jones-PIC-BNPS-co-uk-         Lucky dog Dobby with her owner Holly Chugg Jones (PIC: BNPS.co.uk)
Pet owners Holly Chugg Jones and Julian Light found no sign of their beloved dog Dobby after she fell off the edge of a clip near West Bay.
The couple went home without her and gave up hope of finding the black Labrador cross alive, until two days later she was spotted by a lifeboat crew.
The rescuers found the one-year-old dog after responding to reports of a woman calling for help which turned out to be sheep bleating who found the pup.Ms Chugg Jones, an education student at Bath Spa University, said: “Words can’t describe the relief we felt, it was incredible.
“We jumped straight in the car and returned to the coast to get her.”
A winchman retrieved Dobby who gave her rescuer a lick after before she was reunited with her delighted owners.
Despite plummeting 250ft and not receiving food or water for two days, the dog is in good health and is back home in Bristol.
dog, rescue, miracle, fall, 500 foot, cliff, alive, well, Dobby, Labrador Holly Chugg JonesA diagram of the cliff and the steep drop lucky dog Dobby fell off (PIC: BNPS.co.uk)

            Words can’t describe the relief we felt, it was incredible

Owner Holly Chugg Jones

Speaking of the moment her pet disappeared, Ms Chugg Jones said: “The coastguard were there within 15 minutes but it was getting dark and so we had to go back to the campsite although I didn’t want to leave.
“I didn’t sleep a wink, I was so upset. The next morning the search started again but there was nothing we could do but sit in our car and watch.
“It was awful. I kept imagining Dobby dead in a ditch or washed out to sea.”
Mark Collins, the West Bay coastguard station manager, said Dobby seemed happy and very pleased to see her rescuers when they discovered her.
He said: “She came bounding up to our cliffman and gave him a big lick on the face.
“She is one lucky dog. It is great this story had a happy ending.”

Desastrous situation for straydogs in Russia: The State officials kill animals in Private Shelters & destroy these shelters!


straydogsworldwide.wordpress.com

The State officials kill animals in PRIVATE SHELTERS of Russia and DESTROY these shelters!

The State officials kill animals in PRIVATE SHELTERS of Russia and DESTROY these shelters!

http://maikop.bezformata.ru/listnews/massovoe-ubijstvo-sobak-v-priyute/11756641/

From Mikhail Novikov

https://www.facebook.com/mikhail.novikov.395
The State officials kill animals in PRIVATE SHELTERS of Russia and DESTROY
these shelters! May. 2013.
The workers of state institution for killing of animals “ELOTA” had BROKEN
into the private shelter and killed 39 dogs (Maykop. Russian Federation,
May, 2013). In Surgut 540 animals had been killed by ordered of officials in

private shelter too

http://youtu.be/eweM42H8mx4

(Surgut. Russian Federation, May, 2013).

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eweM42H8mx4&feature=youtu.be
The officials of the Russian Federation not only don’t provide privileges to
shelters (which were created by activists for the rights of animals), but,
moreover, they often destroy these shelters . The officials take away the
earth (which was given for shelters before) and murder the animals under any
pretext…

View original post 136 more words

YOU HAVE TO KNOW: SALT SUGAR FAT – HOW THE FOOD GIANTS HOOKED US- from Winner of thePulitzer Prize Michael Moss


Advertisement, late 1880s
Advertisement, late 1880s (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Salt Sugar Fat – How the Food Giants Hooked Us

Michael Moss Salt Sugar Fat

Food companies understand that salt, sugar and fat “are their holy grail.” By Morgan Korn on Yahoo’s Daily Ticker

According to Michael Moss, the Pulitzer prizing-winning reporter and author of the new book Salt Sugar Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us, executives at the major food behemoths – Kraft, General Mills and Nestle – have known for years that the sugar, salt and fat added to their cereals, soups, tomato sauces and hundreds of other food products have put millions of individuals’ health at risk.

Cargill Coke Nestle

But the quest for bigger profits and a larger share of the consumer market has compelled the processed food industry to turn a blind eye to the dangers and consequences of eating those very products.

Moss’ book exposes the inner workings of the food industry and details how these food giants spend millions of dollars to make the food we eat more addictive. After reading his book, which took Moss four years to write and report, one may never want to consume another Cheez-It cracker or Lunchable again.

Food Scientists Employment Graphic courtesy of the Institute of Food Technologists

How do the food giants trick consumers? Moss gives several examples:

http://gmo-awareness.com/

Read more:

Chicken Killed at Calgary Art School: Take Action!


Chicken Killed at Calgary Art School: Take Action!

April 26, 2013

Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia Commons

BACKGROUND | SOURCE CETFA

Last Thursday, on April 18, a student at the Alberta College of Art and Design brought a live chicken into the school’s cafeteria. In front of spectators, the student slowly cut the throat of the writhing and screaming bird. The student proceeded to bleed the chicken out, remove the head and feathers and drop the bird into a pot–all under the guise of performance art.

Art never justifies harming and inflicting fear, pain and suffering upon another sentient being. The student`s actions must be recognized as what they are: blatant abuse and cruelty inflicted upon a defenceless animal.

Further, the student`s actions may be a sign of psychopathology. A large body of research indicates that those who inflict pain and suffering upon human victims start by inflicting it upon non-human animals.

It is important that the student who committed this cruelty be prosecuted by authorities and disciplined by the school (along with undergoing mandatory psychological treatment).

1. Contact the Alberta College of Art and Design to urge the school to discipline the student who committed this act of cruelty, adopt a formal policy prohibiting animal cruelty. Also request that the school take steps to counteract the unacceptable message of cruelty and violence promoted by this student’s actions and invite CETFA`s humane educator to give a presentation to students, faculty and staff.

2. Contact the Chief of Calgary Police Service, the Chief Crown Prosecutor, the Alberta SPCA and the Calgary Humane Society, and politely urge them to lay charges against the student as Section 2 of Alberta’s provincial Animal Protection Act prohibits causing an animal to be in distress (defined in s.1(2) as including animals that are injured, in pain, suffering, abused or subjected to undue hardship).
WHOM TO CONTACT

Email block

president@acad.ca ; AnneMarie.Dorland@acad.ca ; cps@calgarypolice.ca ; lloyd.robertson@gov.ab.ca ; execdir@albertaspca.org ; general.inquiries@calgaryhumane.ca ; admin@calgaryhumane.ca

Individual Alberta College of Art and Design Dr. Daniel Doz, President and CEO 1407-14 Ave NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4R3 Email : president@acad.caPhone: 403.284.7670 Fax: 403.338.5575

Anne Marie Dorland, Director of Communications Email: AnneMarie.Dorland@acad.ca Phone: 403.284.7656

Rick Hanson, Chief of Calgary Police ServiceCalgary Police Service5111 47 St. N.E.

Calgary, Alberta T3J 3R2 Email: cps@calgarypolice.ca Phone: 403-428-5900

Lloyd Robertson, Chief Crown Prosecutor 600 Centrium Place 332-6 Ave. S.W. Calgary, Alberta T2P 0B2 Email: lloyd.robertson@gov.ab.ca Phone: 403-297-8444 Fax: 403-297-4311

Alberta SPCA Terra Johnston, Executive Director 10806 – 124 Street NW Edmonton, AB  T5M 0H3 Email: execdir@albertaspca.org Phone: 780-447-3600 Fax: 780-447-4748

Calgary Humane Society Mark Takhar, Executive Director Brad Nichols, Manager of Animal Cruelty Investigations 4455 110th AVE SE Calgary, Alberta T2C 2T7 Email: general.inquiries@calgaryhumane.ca or admin@calgaryhumane.ca Phone: 403-205-4455 Fax: 403-723-6050
SAMPLE LETTER

To Whom It Concerns,

On April 18, a student at the Alberta College of Art and Design brought a live chicken into the school’s cafeteria. In front of spectators, the student slowly cut the throat of the writhing and screaming bird. The student proceeded to bleed the chicken out, remove the head and feathers and drop the bird into a pot–all under the guise of performance art.

Art never justifies harming and inflicting fear, pain and suffering upon another sentient being. The student`s actions must be recognized as what they are: blatant abuse and cruelty inflicted upon a defenseless animal.

Further, the student`s actions may be a sign of psychopathology. A large body of research indicates that those who inflict pain and suffering upon human victims start by inflicting it upon non-human animals.

It is important that the student who committed this cruelty be prosecuted by authorities and disciplined by the school (along with undergoing mandatory psychological treatment).

I am urging the school to discipline the student who committed this act of cruelty and to adopt a formal policy prohibiting animal cruelty. I am also requesting that the school take steps to counteract the unacceptable message of cruelty and violence promoted by this student’s actions and invite CETFA`s (Canadians for the Ethical Treatment of Farm Animals) humane educator to give a presentation to students, faculty and staff.

I am also contacting the Chief of Calgary Police Service, the Chief Crown Prosecutor, the Alberta SPCA, and the Calgary Humane Society, and politely urging them to lay charges against the student under Section 2 of Alberta’s provincial Animal Protection Act, which prohibits causing an animal to be in distress (defined in s.1(2) as including animals [who] are injured, in pain, suffering, abused, or subjected to undue hardship).

Thank you for taking the time to consider this urgent appeal.

Our Compass

BACKGROUND | SOURCECETFA

Last Thursday, on April 18, a student at the Alberta College of Art and Design brought a live chicken into the school’s cafeteria. In front of spectators, the student slowly cut the throat of the writhing and screaming bird. The student proceeded to bleed the chicken out, remove the head and feathers and drop the bird into a pot–all under the guise of performance art.

Art never justifies harming and inflicting fear, pain and suffering upon another sentient being. The student`s actions must be recognized as what they are: blatant abuse and cruelty inflicted upon a defenceless animal.

Further, the student`s actions may be a sign of psychopathology. A large body of research indicates that those who inflict pain and suffering upon human victims start by inflicting it upon non-human animals.

It is important that the student who committed this cruelty be prosecuted by authorities and…

View original post 677 more words

On April 18, 2013, a student at the Alberta College of Art and Design (ACAD) in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, brought a live chicken into the school cafeteria. In front of spectators, the student slowly cut the throat of the writhing, screaming bird.


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                INHUMANITY PUR – AND NOBODY HELPED THE LITTLE CHICKEN

On April 18, 2013, a student at the Alberta College of Art and Design (ACAD) in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, brought a live chicken into the school cafeteria. In front of spectators, the student slowly cut the throat of the writhing, screaming bird. The student proceeded to bleed the chicken out, remove the bird’s head and feathers, and drop her into a pot – all in the guise of performance art.
Neither art nor education ever justifies harming and inflicting fear, pain and suffering and death upon another sentient being. As Mary Britton Clouse, Executive Director of Chicken Run Rescue and Justice for Animals Arts Guild, says: “Art is about ideas. Animals are not ideas. They are as real as we are. Their suffering and deprivation are psychologically and biologically indisputable, in the present, and mean the world to each individual animal. No act of self-expression is worth the life or liberty of another.”
The student`s actions must be recognized as blatant abuse and cruelty inflicted upon a defenceless animal.
Further, the student`s actions may be a sign of psychopathology. A large body of research indicates that those who inflict pain and suffering upon human victims often start by abusing nonhuman animals.
It is also disturbing that the students who witnessed the killing failed to act, and that a teacher allegedly approved the killing.
While the student who committed this cruelty should be prosecuted by authorities and disciplined by the school (along with undergoing mandatory psychological treatment), it is important that the ACAD act immediately to prevent future

Europe Prepares For Severe Space Weather


Europe Prepares For Severe Space Weather

http://www.davidreneke.com/europe-prepares-for-severe-space-storms/

solar

Europe sets up centre to monitor potentially dangerous space weather. They launched their first space weather coordination centre on April 3 to raise the alarm for ‘Space Storms.’These include the possible satellite-sizzling solar storms that also threaten astronauts in orbit, airline passengers and electricity grids on Earth. Though impossible to predict, a worst-case scenario mega-storm can happen at any time, leaving the world without Internet, telephones, television, electricity and air and rail transport for days on end.

Limited precautions can be taken, but early warning is key, say experts at the European Space Agency (ESA) which runs the centre from Brussels. “A pilot can always land a plane… because they have alternatives (to satellites) for navigation, but if they get the disturbance without warning, at the wrong time, that can be dangerous,” said Juha-Pekka Luntama, head of ESA’s space weather division. Even a slight satellite glitch can put navigation out by 100 metres – enough to miss a runway.

Earth’s atmosphere and magnetosphere protect the planet from radiation released during solar flares and geomagnetic storms, some of the most severe forms of space weather. Smaller eruptions usually have little noticeable effect, perhaps slight problems with car navigation systems or mobile phones. But a major solar storm on the scale of an event in 1859 that crippled global telegraph systems could have severe effects today.

A “coronal mass ejection” – which sends electromagnetic radiation flying towards Earth at a speed of some 2,500 km (1,500 miles) per second and plays havoc with long transmission lines – caused surges on telegraph lines so strong in 1859 that offices caught fire and operators received electric shocks. Such super storms happen “only very occasionally, perhaps once or twice a century”, according to ESA’s human spaceflight director Thomas Reiter.

Satellites

spacecraft impacted by solar weather

Luntama added that the most severe storms statistically happen around the solar maximum, the period of greatest activity in the 11-year solar cycle – which is where we are now. “In some ways you can say that the next two years is the time period that a solar event is more likely,” he said. An 1859-like storm today could claim about 50 to 100 satellites – 10 percent of the total in orbit, at a cost of billions, according to ESA.

But probably the biggest threat to Earth lies in electric power grid surges. “In the worst case, what could happen is that the transformers in the power grid are damaged and in that case, replacement of the transformers can take weeks or months,” said Luntama. Even if only a small part of the grid is damaged, overloading in neighbouring systems can lead to more blackouts that spread in a domino effect, such as the nine-hour power blackout in Quebec in Canada in 1989.

Astronauts orbiting Earth on the International Space Station (ISS), closer to the source of the radiation, could be at high risk of a severe solar storm, as could airplane crews and passengers flying over the polar regions. Precautions would include turning off satellites to lessen the risk, reducing the load on power grids, astronauts taking cover in well-shielded parts of the ISS, and planes being diverted or even grounded if communications become unreliable.

Once witnessed by space weather watchers, the fallout from a solar storm takes between 17 and 48 hours to reach Earth, depending on its severity. The coordination centre, a central point for space weather enquiries, will draw on the expertise of dozens of European universities, research institutions and private companies. A similar service already exists in the United States.

For the moment, the ESA service – funded by 14 member states – is free. The centre started operating six months ago and is expected to be fully operational by 2020, part of a wider, multibillion-euro ESA system that also tracks objects in space that pose a collision threat. – Source: AFP/The StarOnline